Tension explained

Tension explained - What is tension? Basic electricity potential difference.

Tension explained. What is tension and what is it used for? In this video, we discuss how it works and how useful it is for understanding how electricity works. We'll look at voltage for both AC and DC, starting very simply and progressing as you go to build your basic knowledge, including how to measure voltage with a multimeter. Volts, voltage, current, amps, amps, circuits, electronics, potential difference, joule 220v.

Principle of electric voltage

Electric voltage is used to measure the electric force of the current that passes along each circuit (dipole). From the high-voltage power lines that leave nuclear power plants to the battery that we slip into the television remote control, each electrical intensity is measured thanks to the electrical voltage.

A dipole is an electric circuit with two terminals of equal charge, but of opposite sign (negative and positive). Electric voltage circulates in this network, the terminals of which constantly exchange electrons which create energy.

The electrical voltage, which is expressed in Volts (V) is therefore used to measure the energy circulating in the circuit. To measure it, we use a voltmeter which is connected to each pole (or terminal).

For example, to measure the electrical voltage (U) of an electric battery, the voltmeter is connected to the positive terminal and to the negative terminal. The result displayed on the screen represents its electrical voltage.

It should be noted that the value of U is not the same depending on whether it is direct or alternating current. Indeed, the first has a higher voltage than the second.

The electrical voltage on the network

There is one area where the electrical voltage is constantly controlled: that of electricity production.

In power plants (nuclear, solar, thermal, hydraulic, etc.), the energy produced which arrives in the generator is sent directly to a transformer. The latter will raise the electrical voltage so that it can be routed via the high voltage (HV) lines.

This electrical high voltage will then be lowered to pass through the medium voltage (MV) lines, then again to allow the current to flow through the low voltage (LV) lines, to finally be distributed on the electrical network, then to homes, offices and other industrial or agricultural buildings.

 Electrical voltage in everyday life

The electrical distribution network that supplies homes with electricity is made up of many transformers that control the electrical voltage. This is very important, because in the event of a voltage surge, an entire part of the network could trip. Indeed, when too high a voltage is sent to a device, the latter is no longer able to process it. This usually causes the electric meter to trip.

Electromagnetic pulses, lightning, fluctuations in the electrical network and many other causes, natural or not, can create power surges. To protect electrical devices when there is a storm, we have, for example, the habit of unplugging them. This action avoids any risk of overvoltage which would damage the equipment.

 Take advantage of lower energy prices thanks to TotalEnergies offers

The energy produced by the French electricity grid is the same for everyone. However, by changing your electricity supplier to TotalEnergies, you benefit from this energy at a lower cost. Indeed, between 2 and 10% cheaper than the regulated tariffs, the TotalEnergies offers allow you to lower your bills.

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